Sanshou (Wushu Sanshou), also known as Sanda (Wushu Sanda)Chinese boxing or Chinese kickboxing, is a Chinese self-defense system and combat sport.[2] Wushu Sanshou is a martial art which was originally developed by the Chinese military based upon the study and practices of traditional Kung fu and modern combat fighting techniques; it combines full-contact kickboxing, which includes close range and rapid successive punches and kicks, with wrestlingtakedownsthrowssweeps, kick catches, and in some competitions, even elbow and knee strikes.[3][4]

Wushu Sanshou is not seen as a style itself, but rather is considered as just one of the two components of Chinese martial arts training and is often taught alongside Wushu Taolu (forms) training.[citation needed] However, as part of the development of sport wushu by the Chinese government, a standard curriculum for sanshou was developed. It is to this standard curriculum that the term Wushu Sanshou is usually applied. This curriculum was developed with reference to traditional Chinese martial arts. This general Wushu Sanshou curriculum varies in its different forms, as the Chinese government developed a version for civilians for self-defense and as a sport.[5]Some of the most famous fighters in Sanshou are Fang Bian (Sanda), Cung Le (Kickboxing), Liu Hailong (Sanda), Muslim Salikhov (Sanda), Daniel Ghiță (Kickboxing), Zhang Tiequan (MMA), Zou Shiming (boxing) and the legend Chady Sakr (Sanda).

Sanshou (Wushu Sanshou), juga dikenal sebagai Sanda (Wushu Sanda), tinju China atau kickboxing China, adalah sistem pertahanan diri China dan olahraga tempur. [2] Wushu Sanshou adalah seni bela diri yang pada awalnya dikembangkan oleh militer China berdasarkan studi dan praktik tradisional Kung fu dan teknik pertarungan tempur modern; Ini menggabungkan kickboxing kontak penuh, yang mencakup jarak dekat dan pukulan dan tendangan cepat yang cepat, dengan gulat, takedown, lemparan, sapuan, tangkapan tendangan, dan di beberapa kompetisi, bahkan siku dan pukulan lutut. [3] [4]

Wushu Sanshou tidak dilihat sebagai gaya itu sendiri, namun dianggap hanya sebagai salah satu dari dua komponen latihan bela diri China dan sering diajarkan bersamaan dengan pelatihan Wushu Taolu (bentuk). Namun, sebagai bagian dari pengembangan Wushu olahraga oleh pemerintah China, kurikulum standar untuk sanshou dikembangkan. Kurikulum standar inilah yang biasanya digunakan oleh Wushu Sanshou. Kurikulum ini dikembangkan dengan mengacu pada seni bela diri tradisional Tiongkok. Kurikulum Wushu Sanshou umum ini bervariasi dalam bentuknya yang berbeda, karena pemerintah China mengembangkan sebuah versi untuk warga sipil untuk membela diri dan sebagai olahraga. [5] Beberapa pejuang yang paling terkenal di Sanshou adalah Fang Bian (Sanda), Cung Le (Kickboxing), Liu Hailong (Sanda), Muslim Salikhov (Sanda), Daniel Ghiţă (Kickboxing), Zhang Tiequan (MMA), Zou Shiming (tinju) dan legenda Chady Sakr (Sanda).

Sumber :

The other major discipline of contemporary Chinese Wushu is 散打 Sǎndǎ, or 运动散打 (Yùndòng Sǎndǎ, Sport Free-Fighting), or 竞争散打 (Jìngzhēng Sàndǎ, Competitive Free-Fighting): A modern fighting method, sport, and applicable component of Wushu / Kung Fu influenced by traditional Chinese Boxing, of which takedowns & throws are legal in competition, as well as all other sorts of striking (use of arms & legs). Chinese wrestling methods called Shuai Jiao and other Chinese grappling techniques such as Chin Na. It has all the combat aspects of wushu.

Sanda appears much like Kickboxing or Muay Thai, but includes many more grappling techniques. Sanda fighting competitions are often held alongside taolu or form competitions. Sanda represents the modern development of Lei Tai contests, but with rules in place to reduce the chance of serious injury. Many Chinese martial art schools teach or work within the rule sets of Sanda, working to incorporate the movements, characteristics, and theory of their style.

Chinese martial artists also compete in non-Chinese or mixed combat sports, including Boxing, Kickboxing and Mixed Martial Arts.[6] Sanda is practiced in tournaments and is normally held alongside taolu events in wushu competition. For safety reasons, some techniques from the self-defense form such as elbow strikes, chokes, and joint locks, are not allowed during tournaments. Competitors can win by knockout or points which are earned by landing strikes to the body or head, throwing an opponent, or when competition is held on a raised lei tai platform, pushing them off the platform. Fighters are only allowed to clinch for a few seconds. If the clinch is not broken by the fighters, and if neither succeeds in throwing his opponent within the time limit, the referee will break the clinch. In the U.S., competitions are held either in boxing rings or on the raised lei tai platform. Amateur fighters wear protective gear.

“Amateur Sanda” allows kicks, punches, knees (not to the head), and throws. A competition held in China, called the “King of Sanda”, is held in a ring similar to a boxing ring in design but larger in dimension. As professionals, they wear no protective gear except for gloves, cup, and mouthpiece, and “Professional Sanda” allows knee strikes (including to the head) as well as kicking, punching and throwing.

Some Sanda fighters have participated in fighting tournaments such as K-1 and Shoot Boxing. They have had some degree of success, especially in Shoot boxing competitions, which is more similar to Sanda. Due to the rules of Kickboxing competition, Sanda fighters are subjected to more limitations than usual. Also notable competitors in China’s mainstream Mixed Martial Arts competitions, Art of War Fighting Championship and Ranik Ultimate Fighting Federation are dominantly of wushu background. Sanda has been featured in many style-versus-style competitions. Muay Thai is frequently pitted against Sanda as is Karate, Kickboxing, & Tae Kwon Do. Although it is less common, some Sanda practitioners have also fought in the publicly viewed American Mixed Martial Arts competitions.